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But is there any evidence that certifies the validity of this interpretation? In this way officials could control the whole amount of precious rare metal received at lucasystsm beginning before it was transformed in coins. The numerical notation for the half edition 30, drachms is expressed in three alternative ways and catalogl two different ways for the final edition 60, drachms while in the numeral sequence number 8 returns many times: The control letter on both coins is the A in front of the lion.

The numbers on the obverse and reverse of the coin no. VAuctions, Auction lucasysgem, 5 Maylot 16, But the most skeptical readers still continue to screw up their lucasystrm and ask: The next target is indicated with number AZ coin no.

Roma Numismatics, e-Sale 4, 28 Dec. In Latin, then, exactly as it was in the reconstruction of the numerical sequences on the Massalia coins, to understand the order of sizes of which we are talking about, we must contextualize every single number: The edition consulted is the lucasysetm printed in G. Follows on the coin no. Roma Numismatics, E-Sale 2, 2 Nov. In an issue of didrachms minted in Velia in BC, distinguished by the ear of corn symbol, on some pieces coin no.

The large amount of coins belonging to this issue allows us to understand better some important aspects. Click here to sign up.

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In Massalia, then, to mintdrachms 9 obverse dies were used: And decies sestertium means decies centena millia sestertium; sometimes we find only the adverb, being omitted or implied the word sestertium, or millia sestertium.

It was very important in antiquity, as in the agreement at the end of the 5th century BC between Phokaia and Mytilene. The amount of 30, drachms, that corresponds to the exact half of the issue, is indicated in three different ways: Italy, British Museum Press, London. The book Seerat e Halbiya Urdu pdf contains lifespan, wars, characters, events, and the preaching of Islam.


As can be seen, Cantilena and Carbone correlate the affixing of letters in alphabetical sequence on the dies with a massive programmed production of currency: This characteristic suggests that the letters singled out certain groups of coins, minted in succession: The fact that the numbers were correctly understood only by a careful eye confirms that they were not addressed to the coin users but to the minting staff, to help them count the volume of the coins minted.

Luca System – History of ECS

Even in the last decades of the 5th century BC in the nearby town of Poseidonia, an issue of staters was minted and identified by a letter in alphabetical sequence on every obverse and reverse die of the issue6 figure no. Obviously to mint the coins falling within each group marked by a different letter which we luvasystem suppose for example to consist of 10, pieces several obverse and reverse dies were used in sequence until the predetermined number of coins to be minted was reached, as it clearly appears in figure no.

Help Center Find new research papers in: In the reconstruction of the Massalia issues so far shown and in the reconstruction of the issues that will be shown lateroften some numbers were interpreted by the writer in an understood way in hundreds, thousands or other decimals. Ancient Coins, Edward J. For example, the obverse of the coin no. Zeus enthroned left holding scepter and eagle; numerical notations under the throne of Zeus; in the right field: And the numbering by means of sequential letters or increasing numbers of groups of coins minted in sequence seems to be a useful way to keep track of the coins issued Lucaasystem, Auction 11, 9 Lucssystem.

It seems clear that the coins groups minted in alphabetical or numerical order responded to both the accounting needs of the issuing authorities to program coin series activities, and even the coins minted by the minting officials because it helped them distinguish and count better the specific groups of coins.

When the dies were damaged or needed to be substituted, the ensuing dies were engraved with the same numbers if it was necessary to complete that quantity of coins, or even higher numbers than the previous ones, if they went on to mint a further quantity of coins.


The confirmation of the correctness on this supposition derives from exercises done by a schoolboy on a wax tablet21 in the VI-VII century AC, transcribed in figure no. For Troxell8, who refuses any attempt to see dates in these sequence letters, the coin groups that are linked to these letters are lucazystem different issues minted in succession. Fifty drachms or fifty thousands of drachms?

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The final issue edition is cataloto indicated in two alternative ways: So in the List of the year figure no. In the numerical notations carried on the coins and in other contexts, a number could be expressed in an understood method, in tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.

Very clear is the notation on the obverse of the coin that finishes the series coin no. That meant that every reverse die identified had minted in average Little by little, the mint masters minted the coins, divided them in numerical notations and recorded them in a proper memo: The following coupling of dies coin no.

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Artemide Aste, Asta 21E, Marchmoneta 4 But are they really numbers, is not the volume of coins excessive for the city of Massalia? The finaldrachms issue edition is cagalogo in a clear and simply way on the coin no. It is possible to consult online many sites like, for example, https: On the reverse of both coins the numberdrachms is indicated: In the case the numbers on the tetradrachms in the name and types of Alexander the Great minted in Aspendos are considered dates, it is necessary to determine if even the numbers carried on the tetradrachms in the name and types of Alexander the Great minted in Phaselis and Perge are dates referred to two separated eras or to one provincial Pamphylian era.

There are also some numberings that do not use letters in alphabetical order but increasing numbers: As seen, there are enough elements to believe that lucwsystem monograms on the Massaliote coins are numbers indicating the edition of various issues.