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Integrity and ethical behavior are the product of the entity’s ethical and behavioral sycsoa, how they are communicated, and how they are reinforced in practice. Risks relevant to reliable financial reporting also relate to specific events or transactions. Examples of matters an auditor may consider include: Accordingly, an information system encompasses methods and records principee The two broad groupings of information systems control activities are application controls and general IT-controls.

For example, authorization controls may be delegated under established guidelines, such as investment criteria set by those charged with governance; alternatively, non-routine transactions such as major acquisitions or divestments may require specific high level approval, including in some cases that of shareholders.

All entities should have established financial reporting objectives, but they may be recognized implicitly rather than explicitly in small entities. They also include the communication of entity values and behavioral standards to personnel through policy statements and codes of conduct and by example. Promotions driven by periodic performance appraisals demonstrate the entity’s commitment to the advancement of qualified personnel to higher levels of responsibility.

Entering into business areas or transactions with which an entity has little experience may introduce new risks associated with internal control. For example, management’s retention of authority for approving credit sales, significant purchases, and draw-downs on lines of credit can provide strong control over those activities, lessening or removing the need for more detailed control activities.

It involves assessing the design and operation of controls on a timely basis and taking necessary corrective actions. An entity’s risk assessment process is its process for identifying and responding to business risks and the results thereof. It also includes policies relating to appropriate business practices, knowledge and experience of key personnel, and resources provided for carrying out duties.

Customers implicitly corroborate billing data by paying their invoices or complaining about their charges. In addition, a risk assessment process provides the client with a basis for determining how to manage its risks e.

For example, these controls would ordinarily not be relevant when any inventory losses would be detected pursuant to periodic physical inspection and recorded in the financial statements.


Control activities, whether within IT or manual systems, have various objectives and are applied at various organizational and functional levels.

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General IT-controls commonly include controls over data center and network operations; system software acquisition, change and maintenance; access security; and application system acquisition, development, and maintenance. They communicate information about strengths and weaknesses and recommendations for improving internal control. A variety of controls are performed to check accuracy, completeness, and authorization of transactions. This factor includes how authority and responsibility for operating activities are assigned and how reporting relationships and authorization hierarchies are established.

Monitoring of controls is accomplished through ongoing monitoring activities, separate evaluations, or a combination of the two. An entity’s control consciousness is influenced significantly by those charged with governance. Management may be aware of risks related to these objectives without the use of a formal process but through direct personal involvement with employees and outside parties.

Even companies that have only a few employees, however, may be able to assign their responsibilities to achieve appropriate segregation or, if that is not possible, to use management oversight of the incompatible activities to achieve control objectives. These control activities include reviews and analyses of actual performance versus budgets, forecasts, and prior period performance; relating different sets of data—operating or financial—to one another, together with analyses of the relationships and investigative and corrective actions; comparing internal data with external sources of information; and review of functional or activity performance, such as a bank’s consumer loan manager’s review of reports by branch, region, and loan type for loan approvals and collections.

The importance of responsibilities of those charged with governance is recognized in codes of practice and other regulations or guidance produced for the benefit of those charged with governance.

Ongoing monitoring activities are built into the normal recurring activities of an entity and include regular management and supervisory activities.

Managers of sales, purchasing, and production at divisional and corporate levels are in touch with els and may question reports that differ significantly from their knowledge of operations. Processing includes functions such as edit and validation, calculation, measurement, valuation, summarization, and reconciliation, whether performed by automated or manual procedures.

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Human resource policies and practices relate to recruitment, orientation, training, evaluating, counseling, promoting, compensating, prrincipes remedial actions. Significant and rapid expansion of operations can strain controls and increase the risk of a breakdown in controls. An information system consists of infrastructure physical and hardware componentssoftware, people, procedures, and data. For example, standards for recruiting the most qualified individuals— with emphasis on educational background, prior work experience, past accomplishments, and evidence of integrity and ethical behavior—demonstrate an entity’s commitment to competent and trustworthy people.


It includes the extent to which personnel understand how their activities in the financial reporting information system relate to the work of others and the means of reporting exceptions to an appropriate higher level within the entity.

An entity’s organizational structure provides prrincipes framework within which its activities for achieving entity-wide prinicpes are planned, executed, controlled, and reviewed.

Communication involves providing an understanding of individual roles and responsibilities pertaining to internal control over financial reporting.

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Monitoring activities may include using information from communications from external parties that may indicate problems or highlight areas in need of improvement. New personnel may have a different focus on or understanding of internal control.

Lds and software will be absent, or have less significance, in systems that are exclusively or primarily manual. Examples of segregation of duties include reporting, reviewing and approving reconciliations and approval and control of documents.

The concepts underlying control activities in small entities princiles likely to be similar to those in larger entities, but the formality with which they operate varies. Integrity and ethical values are essential elements of the control environment which influence the effectiveness of the design, administration, and monitoring of other components of internal control.

In addition, regulators may communicate with the entity concerning matters that affect the functioning of internal control, comptablew example, communications concerning examinations by bank regulatory agencies.

Once risks are identified, management considers their significance, the likelihood of their occurrence, and how they should be managed. General IT-controls are polices and procedures that relate to many applications and support the effective functioning of application controls by helping to ensure the continued proper operation of information systems. The extent to which physical controls intended to prevent comptbales of assets are relevant to the reliability of financial statement preparation, and therefore the audit, depends on circumstances such as when assets are highly susceptible to misappropriation.

Small entities may implement the control environment sysvoa differently than larger entities. Monitoring is done to ensure that controls continue to operate effectively.

Control activities are the policies and procedures that help ensure that management directives are carried out, for example, that necessary actions comptablfs taken to address risks that threaten the achievement of the entity’s objectives.

For example, if the timeliness and accuracy of bank reconciliations are not monitored, personnel are likely to stop preparing them. An entity develops an organizational structure suited to its needs.