The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State ( Cambridge Studies in Law and Society) [John Torpey] on *FREE* shipping. Daniel Nordman THE INVENTION OF THE PASSPORT Surveillance, Citizenship and the State John Torpey University of California, Irvine □H CAMBRIDGE. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Front Cover · John Torpey, Professor of Sociology John Torpey. Cambridge University .
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More specifically, pre- cisely how is the nexus between states, subjects, and potential interlopers generated and sustained?
While I had the good fortune to enjoy an extended colloquy with Robert Wohl in the context of a National Endowment for the Humanities-sponsored seminar on intel- lectuals and politics during the summer of when the idea for this study was first formulated, the others simply responded to an unsolicited query from a young scholar unknown to them.
The invention of the passport. The welfare of the state is in this word: The first three “natural and civil rights” promulgated by the Assembly were relatively general provisions dealing with equality before the law. This gap considerably limited the far-reaching claims of the nation state to control the movement of persons in, into, and across its territory far into the 20 th century. The Constitution of and the elimination of passport controls.
Several protagonists in the early Assembly debate over passport controls had insisted that, notwithstanding their birth elsewhere, many foreigners were “true friends of liberty” and should therefore not be encumbered with extraordinary legal burdens. The First World War and the temporary reimposition of passport controls.
Under serfdom, the serfs’ legal capacity to move lay in the hands of their landlords, who had jurisdiction over them. The records of the pro- ceedings indicate that the members of the Assembly believed they were making a major contribution to the cause of human freedom when they abolished passport controls on the French people, which they viewed as part and parcel of the arbitrary power of the ancien regime?
In particular, Tilly’s enumeration of invasions leaves unclear how tax- ation and conscription grew to depend decisively on mechanisms of surveillance such as censuses, household registration systems, passports internal and externaland other identity documents.
One means for the state to gain such access was to restrict mobility by requiring documentation of movement and residence. On 6 Fructidor Year II 23 Augustthe Convention decreed that passports in the depart- ment of Paris would be issued by inventkon comite civil without any jjohn having to be referred to the general assembly of the section, and would be visaed by the revolutionary committee of the arrondissement.
Their utter seriousness became unmistakably apparent when they voted to have the King beheaded in the Place de la Revolution on 21 January Indeed, accord- ing to Sophie Wahnich, with this ordinance the surveillance of foreigners becomes institutionalized “not simply in the order of normal- ized police practices, but in the order of writing.
Exceptions were to be made only if the individual in ques- tion had made a declaration to the newly installed twelve-member committees instituted in each municipality to hear them. Pasdport — United States. The state’s complete expropriation of the power to authorize movement would take some time to achieve, of course, but they were well on their way to making this monopoly a reality.
Torpey received his bachelor of arts degree from Amherst College in in political sciencebefore completing his Ph. During the ensuing weeks, General Dumouriez concluded an armistice with the Austrians with the intention of marching on Paris to restore the monarchy and the Constitution of ; the death penalty was invoked against armed rebels, refractory priests, and emigres; and, by the end of the month, the latter had died “civil death” and were subject to the physical variety if they inventio to the country.
Indeed, he proposed that foreigners traveling in France be required to make a declaration to the municipal authorities wherever they found themselves, and urged that the machin- ery be set in motion to torpej recidivists who were gens sans aveu, gens suspects, or gens malintentionnes: Greer has described the results as follows: Another member observed that French travelers in Spain were experiencing difficulties because the authorities there were refusing to recognize passports issued by tbe municipalities, and hence insisted that all passports be visaed by higher authorities les gouverneurs.
Passport controls, moreover, would allow the national gendarmerie to ask “the unknown traveler, in the name of the law, ‘Who are you? There was an ghe of sophistry in this argument, of course, but the opponents of the passport law sensed that they were on the defensive.
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These approaches are inadequate for understanding either the devel- opment of modern states or migration patterns. As the numbers of former emigres in France swelled, they established agencies in various cities dedicated to producing evidence of non-emigration, which was essential for their ability to evade hostile authorities.
Greer’s optimistic view of freedom of movement among the French during this period sits awkwardly, for example, with the evidence of a decree of the National Assembly dated 30 May – 13 June France had begun to take the necessary steps to distinguish clearly and effectively between natives and foreigners within its borders. Declaring that “the health of the Empire requires the most active surveillance,” the National Assembly mandated that every- one – whether French or foreign – traveling within the Kingdom be in possession of a passport.
Full text of “The invention of the passport : surveillance, citizenship, and the state”
Pandemonium had erupted in the chamber in response to his proposal to require those wishing to leave the Kingdom to carry a passport in which that intention was inscribed.
I also attempt to demonstrate that procedures and mechanisms for identifying persons are essential to this process, and that, in order to jhn implemented in practice, the notion of national communities must be codified in documents rather than merely “imagined.
First introduced passprot 1 Novemberthe certificats de civisme had been made a requirement for all government functionaries with a law of 5 Februaryand by June inventuon were obligatory for all pensionnaires de la Republique. It examines how the concept of citizenship has been used to delineate rights and penalties regarding property, liberty, taxes and wel- fare.
The eligibility for government services, the issuance of various licenses, the assessment of taxes, the right to vote, etc.