In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

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Congress on Acoustics, Stuttgart, Ger. The foregoing is not a far-fetched example. The problem just outlined is even now a critical one, and it seems certain to become more and more critical as time goes by.

J. C. R. Licklider

He could even define new symbols, as Gilmore and Savell [14] have done at the Lincoln Laboratory, and present them directly to the computer.

Jdr untrained operators can read at least as rapidly as trained ones can type, such a device would be a convenient tool in almost any computer installation. To go a step up the scale of vocabulary size, we may say that an automatic recognizer of clearly spoken alpha-numerical characters can almost surely be developed now on the basis of existing knowledge.

It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership. Diffusing the Intergalactic Network,” The computer will be able to refer to it repeatedly, but not to change it.

They will formulate hypotheses. That assumption may require justification. They are “semi-automatic” systems, systems that started out to be fully wymbiosis but fell short of the goal. Perhaps the best outcome is partial symbiosis or intelligence augmentation.

Springer 5 Decpages, G. For some purposes, it would be desirable for the operators to be able to communicate with the computer through the supplementary displays and perhaps even through the wall display.

Although detailed discussion of techniques of automatic speech recognition is beyond the present scope, it is fitting to note that computing machines are playing a dominant role in the development of automatic speech recognizers.


The information-processing equipment, for its part, will convert hypotheses into testable models and then test the models against data which the human operator may designate roughly and identify as relevant when the computer presents them for his approval. Tomorrow you spend with a programmer. It would require developments in computer time sharingmemory components, memory organization, symmbiosis languagesand input and output equipment.

With such an input-output device, the operator would quickly learn to write or print in a manner legible to the machine. Perhaps future success will not be found by man or machine alone, but rather will be achieved by individuals who best know how to maximize the capabilities of technology to reach a desired end, cf. Information storage and retrieval.

The requirement for preformulation or predetermination is sometimes no great disadvantage. How desirable and how feasible is speech communication between human operators and computing machines? Clark, “Simulation of self-organizing systems by digital computers.

J.C.R. Licklider (1915-1990)

Finally, it will do as much diagnosis, pattern-matching, and relevance-recognizing as it profitably can, but it will accept a clearly secondary status in those areas. An Information Society for All? Thankfully, the final word remains with the flesh-and-blood doctors. The main engineering problems will concern selection circuitry. To think in interaction with a computer in the same way that you think with a colleague whose competence supplements your own will require much tighter coupling between man and machine than is suggested by the example and than is possible today.

He has worked in both fixed line and wireless environments across a wide variety of technologies in Europe and America. Preliminary analysis of his problems and time scales suggests that a corporation president would be interested in a symbiotic association with a computer only as an avocation.

Engineers who have had experience in the field of automatic speech recognition take a conservative attitude toward the feasibility. Another Look at Man-Computer Symbiosis. Computers “naturally” speak nonredundant languages, usually with only two elementary symbols and no inherent appreciation either of unitary objects or of coherent actions.


In some ways it is a logical extension of our past decision support research, in other ways the prospect of a tightly linked relationship of a human being with a “smart” computing machine is frightening.

Another Look at Man-Computer Symbiosis

cmoputer More than fifty years after Licklider’s seminal article was published defining a goal of creating a human-computer symbiosis, we are at the threshold or turning point of achieving that goal.

However, a brief outline of one promising idea, “trie memory,” may serve to indicate the general nature of anticipated developments.

See disclaimer and privacy statement. What is the difference between big data and Hadoop? Views Read Edit View history. There is much to ponder about man-computer symbiosis. The large wall display and its associated system are relevant, of course, to symbiotic cooperation between a computer and a team of men. Fuchs-Kittowski – Social Informatics: It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership.

They would be easier to solve, and they could be solved faster, through an intuitively guided trial-and-error procedure in which the computer cooperated, turning up flaws in the reasoning or revealing unexpected turns in the solution. Cooper, “Minimal rules for synthesizing speech,” J. You get a sheet of paper 20 feet long, full of numbers that, instead of providing a final solution, only suggest a tactic that should be explored by simulation.

Man-Computer Symbiosis

Thus far, the achievements have not been substantively important; they have constituted only “demonstration in principle. There are even arrangements to keep users msn “clobbering” anything but their own personal programs. The equipment will interpolate, extrapolate, and transform.

Have we already begun the journey toward complete or partial symbiosis?