Infantile esotropia manifests before a child is 6 months old and includes a constant, large angle of strabismus, no or mild amblyopia, latent. Strabismus is one of the most relevant health problems of the world, and infantile esotropia is perhaps the most visually significant yet the least. The term congenital esotropia is often used interchangeably with infantile esotropia, but few cases are actually noted at birth. Often the exact.

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Cross-fixation congenital esotropiaalso called Cianci’s syndrome is a particular type of large-angle infantile esotropia associated with tight medius rectus muscles. The patient cross-fixates, that is, to fixate objects on the left, the patient looks across the nose with the right eye, and vice versa.

Forced duction testing is helpful in differentiating a restrictive component. Children operated early had better gross stereopsis at age six as compared to children operated late. Equally round and briskly reactive.

At 6 months of age, she underwent uncomplicated bilateral medial rectus recessions The cause of infantile esotropia has been a topic of great debate for the greater part of the last century. Create account Log in. A recent study on 38 children concluded that surgery for infantile esotropia is most likely to result in measureable stereopsis if patient age at alignment is not more than 16 months. Results of early alignment of congenital esotropia.

Retrieved from ” http: This page was last modified on March 8,at Infntil Inward deviation of the eyes, usually large angle Full motility Cross-fixation may lead to appearance of an abduction defect on versions Associated findings include: Wright; Yi Ning J. Assessing motility and the child’s ability to abduct the eye can be demonstrated with the “doll’s head” maneuver—also known as vestibular enfotropia by observing motility with one eye occluded ductions.

Other less common complications include perforation of the sclera, lost or slipped muscles, infection, anterior segment ischemia, postoperative diplopia, conjunctival granulomas and cysts. Arch ophthalmol ; According to a Cochrane ebdotropia ofcontroversies remain regarding type of surgery, non-surgical intervention and age of intervention.


The most common procedure is bilateral medial rectus recession.

These more recent findings formed the basis for the current practice of early surgery for sndotropia with congenital esotropia. The exam should be quick and performed in a fun atmosphere. Is infantile esotropia associated with vision loss?

Infantile (Congenital) Esotropia

As alternative to surgery, also botulinum toxin therapy has been used in children with infantile esotropia. Most children with infantile esotropia demonstrate a deficit of depth perception when old enough to be tested reliably. Dissociated deviations are seen in patients with decreased binocular vision. Patients have central suppression with decreased binocular vision.

Factors associated with horizontal reoperation in infantile esotropia.

Prematurity, hydrocephalus, seizure disorders, developmental delay, intraventricular hemorrhage and a family history of strabismus are among the risk factors for the development of infantile esotropia.

Patients with esotropic Duane syndrome have limited abduction with small-angle esotropia in primary gaze, abnormal face turn, and incomitance. The patient is a 2 month-old girl referred by her pediatrician for evaluation of esotropia.

The etiology of infantile esotropia remains unknown. American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Practical Case Study Exercises. Treatment is spectacles for the ingantil cycloplegic refraction. If one eye is turned more frequently than the other, there is increased risk for the development of amblyopia.

Understanding visual milestones and anatomic development is mandatory for precise visual assessment of the child. Its Causes, Pathology, and Treatment.

Infantile esotropia

InAmerican ophthalmologist Gunter K. A history of trauma can be useful in differentiating medial wall endotopia as a cause of esotropia.

Symptoms Usually not noted immediately at birth but within 6 months of age May be secondary to underlying neurological or developmental issue, therefore important to do thorough history and examination. Amblyopia is poor vision in an eye that is structurally normal. There are no comments available. Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility. Untreated infantile esotropes can develop excellent vision in each eye, but bifoveal fixation with full binocular function will not be achieved.


Occasionally a vertical acting eye muscle inferior oblique may overact which may cause the eye to move up when looking to the side. Patients with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles will frequently have poor inrantil.

The examination must include assessment of vision, ocular motility, strabismus measurements at distance and near and cycloplegic refraction in addition to general ocular examination.

If there is no oblique dysfunction, shifting the medial rectus muscles at time of recession towards the apex of the pattern will weaken the effective pull of the medial rectus at the apex, decreasing the amount of V or A pattern.

Infantile Esotropia – EyeWiki

S refers to the steadiness of fixation on the examiner’s light under monocular conditions. Link to strabismus surgery entry. The modified-Krimsky method involves holding prisms before the fixating eye or splitting prism between the two eyes. DVD dissociated vertical deviationinferior oblique overaction, and latent nystagmus Symptoms Usually not noted immediately at birth but within 6 months of age May be secondary to underlying neurological or developmental issue, therefore important to do thorough history and examination Treatment Ocular alignment rarely achieved without surgery Best surgical outcomes when performed between 6 and 24 months Bilateral medial rectus recession Ipsilateral medial rectus recession and lateral rectus resection Surgical measurements should be made from the limbus If very large angle deviation, may need to do 3 or 4 horizontal muscle surgery References Nelson LB, Wagner RS, Simon JW, et al.

Some signs may give a clue about the sensory development and the prognosis of the condition.