(Craik & Tulving, ; Hyde & Jenkins, ; Lockhart, Graik, & Jacoby, ). Elaborative processing is distractors (Coltheart, ; Elias & Perfetti, ). The researches done by Hyde and Jenkins () and Craik and Elias and Perfetti () performed a study using the same technique. It involved a rhyming . Key Study Elias and Perfetti () looked at levels of processing, specifically phonetic and semantic processing. This study will recreate this key study. The aim.

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Study 1 Hyde and Jenkins wanted to find whether rating words for pleasantness led to better recall.

Slides – Projects In Knowledge. Request removal from index. If this happens, it is due to chance. The incidental learning technique is when the participant is not aware they have to learn.

From the Publisher via CrossRef no proxy content. Apparatus 30 consent forms Appendix A Stopwatch 30 response sheets for participants Standardized instructions Appendix C 30 slips of paper showing words used for experiment.

Dependent variable The total number of words that participants were able to eluas from the word list of 30 words. Endel Tulving – – Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 2: Linguistics Phonetic Alphabets Transcription and notes.

Background theory The cognitive level of processing, identified by Craik and Lockhartis an example of information processing. Chandler Shumate – – Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 1: They found best-rated words had best recall whereas words that were rated least pleasant led to worst recall.


An independent measures design has been used so demand characteristics are not created. Video Notes from the Lectures. At the end of the experiment, participants were verbally debriefed of the aim and purpose of the experiment Appendix F. Phonetic processing is when a rhyme is made out of the information processed, giving the individual better recall.

Association, Directionality, and Stimulus Encoding. Each condition had 15 participants. A Test of Encoding Variability Theory. Warren – – Journal of Experimental Psychology 1: He found that participants who categorized words had better recall than participants who just read words. There will be no significant difference in words being recalled by participants that have used the different levels of processing: This is because semantically processed words required deep processing while phonetically processed and visually processed words required shallow processing.

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Introduction Aim To what extent does semantic processing lead to

Encoding and Retrieval in Visual Memory Tasks. The response sheet was then taken away and they were given 5 flias timed with a stopwatch to write down words they were able to recall. Semantic processing leads to the best recall as personal meaning is given.

Key Study Elias and Perfetti looked at levels of processing, specifically phonetic and semantic processing.

From this experiment, Elias and Perfetti used this as participants were not aware they had to recollect the words after they performed the two tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology eliaz 2: RederJohn R. The participants would recall the words based on their task. Ellis – – Journal of Experimental Psychology 6: Nancy Frost – – Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 2: Out of the 30 students that were sampled, 17 were females and 13 were males.


Memory and Cognitive Science in Philosophy of Mind. Shallow processing is when the information is rlias at which is the worst way. They found that participants recalled more words they had to find a synonym for than to find a rhyme for which suggests that deeper levels of processing leads to improved recall.

History of Western Philosophy. Walker – – Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 3: Study 2 Craik and Tulving wanted to find out whether deep rlias shallow processing affected memory.

Introduction Aim To what extent does semantic processing lead to

Each group was put into a separate room. Participants Participants were students from an international school in Hong Kong aged 17 to 18 from years 12 to Smith – – Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 11 3: Science Logic and Mathematics. This is because the pefetti rated words involved semantic processing.

Participants were approached on June 13th, at