DZONGKHA GRAMMAR PDF

Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. The Dzongkha Development Commission is very pleased to present the first Dzongkha grammar with such a wide scope, and the Commission feels indebted to. Dzongkha, or Bhutanese is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national.

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Similarly, upon attaining one’s thirtieth eleventh lunar month of the Iron Horse Year, whereby the birthday, one commences his thirty-first year of life, 12th was skipped. J’ Lap ‘inhabitants of the mountain passes’, which is 4e. As pointed out above, the Bumthangpas too are called Monpa by the Brokpas of Dur. The particle ya may also mark a supposition or presumption inferred by the speaker from the context, as in the exchange in example between someone looking for something under the bed in the morning and someone standing beside him getting dressed.

Those chillies are spicy. Because Roman Dzongkha is used in addition to the native script throughout the Grammar of Dzongkha and the Dzongkha Language Workbook, foreign students who wish to acquire a command of Dzongkha without learning the native Dzongkha script may skip Chapter Two of the workbook and grammar and begin immediately in Chapter Three. Cho Dr0 asho-g0 i b0 u ‘ing indicates that the speaker is going to use the second per- Psst, hey, Doji!

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The auto- They probably already left three days ago. Interrogative and indefinite pronouns 6. He is swimming across the river.

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I It could be that she loves him. So, I shall require another arrow. Other Tibeto-Burman languages of Bhutan 18 7.

So, I’m a patient! Zha ‘uncle’ or B’i’ cJJ’ ‘am a are appropriate. He will soon be resigning from this office.

Ngi-phogem-d0 i grxmmar i phogem-wa My-eldeLbrother-the you-[gen] elder Such constructions are dealt with in the following section. Periphrastic constructions with the infinitive A newspaper headline may consist of an infinitive only, e. Sangga naba jo-ni-‘ing z0 e.

Dzongkha Lessons

Rhetorical questions 4. The Dzongkha vowel is long in duration German plotzlich or Dutch Ius. Verbs ending in a gra,mar will be Khong-‘nyi dzim ‘imma marked as soft or hard stem verbs in glossaries and They-two fight [aux] dictionaries.

The initial hr is followed by the ‘tit Much of the couleur locale of these northern dialects results from structural and lexical similarities with Tibetan.

J’ tshe cutham ginal Tibetan system is still in use. It is a South Tibetic language closely related dzonggkha Sikkimese.

Transliteration and transcription Whereas Dzongkha is the living, spoken language, the Transcription is a rendering of pronunciation. The falling contour is longer in duration, particularly in the low register.

Similarly, the speaker in 40 does not tell us what he does not know, viz. There- fore a phrase such as Nga la beu-ma makes no sense except in the unusual situation such as that depicted in sentence 97 where the speaker discovers himself at work on a videotape.

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Dzongkha Initials and Tones Dzongkha is a tone language with two distinctive tones, a high register and a low register tone. Bjop-d0 i-tshu-g i 0 taju Ui. Strictly speaking, final -r and final -1 occur in colloquial spoken Dzongkha only in literary pronunciations.

Dzongkha Lessons

The dog’ s tail is like a fluttering flag. In the preceding section the inflected stem of a verb was seen to convert the clause of which it is the head into a nominal constituent within a larger syntagma.

The autolalic future and future perfect There is a special future form, the autolalic future, which expresses the intent of the first person subject. Khomachu about 8 krn upstream from its confluence ‘With the Kurichu. Chap-cap-zh grammr imla lok nyim sha-yi Dong ma-chu-wi-hema so chu-go Rain-fall-after back sun shine-[pt] Face not-wash-[gen]-before teeth wash-must After the rain the sun shone again. Telling time expressing Aktionsart 4.

JO-nl 1n-na ‘Are you going tomorrow? Cho-ca-nga-ca-kha is more conservative in its pro- nunciation of many words than Dzongkha, e. Mushrooms dry add-must-[ak] [We’ll] have to resort to flattery.