Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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Psychostimulant use in the rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury. It is important to stress that the effect of rivastigmine was not specific for apathy, since improvements were also noticed on other neuropsychiatric disturbances. After 26 weeks of treatment there was starkstein apathy scale significant improvement of apathy, as starkstein apathy scale with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory.

Possible applications for dopaminergic agents following traumatic brain injury: In spite of the strong negative impact of apathy aptahy AD, treatment studies for this frequent behavioural condition are surprisingly few.

Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS)

There is a variety starkstein apathy scale scales that are both valid and reliable to rate the severity of sca,e, but these instruments are also used to diagnose apathy based on cut-off scores. AD patients with apathy are more impaired in basic activities of daily living and their caregivers report significantly higher levels of distress as compared to AD patients without apathy Landes et al. American Psychiatric Publishing; Treatment of apathy There are few randomized controlled trials of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatments for apathy in AD.


Habib concluded that “athymormia” is the result of a striatal-limbic disconnection syndrome characterized by deficits converting past or present emotional experience into action.

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In a recent study, Cummings and coworkers Cummings et al. Apahty Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 3 3: The Apathy Inventory also includes separate assessments for the symptoms of emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and loss of interest. Based on answers to specific questions, symptoms are scored as either absent, subclinical, or definitely present. There are no specific randomized controlled trials of psychoactive compounds to treat apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury. Nevertheless, the frequency of apathy is highest among individuals with dementia, and the present review will mainly focus on the frequency and clinical correlates of apathy in AD. The results showed a significant overall increment in apathy scores during the follow-up period, but there was no depression by apathy interaction i.

About two thirds of the AD patients with apathy were also depressed either major or minor depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 75 9: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Jun; 77 6: We examined the frequency of apathu in a study that included a consecutive series of patients with probable AD Starkstein et al. In a recent review, Habib summarized the main clinical features of apathy which he termed “athymormia” after brain damage, and stressed the over-representation of basal ganglia lesions among these patients.

The prevalence, clinical correlates and treatment of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease

These diagnostic criteria have been validated for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, but their validity in other neuropsychiatric conditions remains to be established. Assessing psychopathology in dementia patients. Several treatment studies suggested that anticholinesterase compounds may improve apathy among patients with dementia.

The authors suggested that testosterone replacement therapy may constitute a helpful treatment of apathy for these patients.


Anticholinesterase drugs may improve apathy in Alzheimer’s disease, although this could be an epiphenomenon of improvement on other behavioural disorders. Diagnosis of Apathy Marin defined apathy as the absence or lack of feeling, emotion, interest or motivation Marin In conclusion, whilst sfale is one of the most frequent behavioural changes in neuropsychiatric disorders, its clinical assessment is still problematic.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 15 2: Clinical information was obtained starksetin caregivers, who filled the Apathy Scale about the patient. Author links open overlay panel Kenn Freddy Pedersen M.

Important issues for further research are the validation of the clinical construct of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders, better knowledge of those brain lesions that apatjy be associated with apathy, and finding effective treatment modalities for this condition. Effect of amantadine hydrochloride on symptoms of frontal lobe dysfunction in brain injury: Arch Neurol ; Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 10 2: These modules are considered to engage independent frontal-subcortical circuits.

Treating apathy in Alzheimer’s disease.


Cereb Scle in press. Selegiline in the management of apathy following traumatic brain injury. Frequency of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease We examined the frequency of apathy in a study that included a consecutive series of patients with probable AD Starkstein et al. Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease, apathy is significantly associated with older age, the presence of depression, and more apaathy cognitive and functional deficits, and also predicts a faster cognitive and functional decline.